Kyrgyzstan - is located in the very heart of Central Asia on the Great Silk Road, and has been praised by many poets and philosophers of the East. This area of the world is fast becoming a prime tourist destination as many people are now interested in understanding more about the history of the people living here.




History of Kyrgyzstan

The Kyrgyz, a Turkic-speaking people, constitute a slim majority of the multi-ethnic population of Kyrgyzstan. The constitution enshrines Kyrgyz as the country's state language, although Russian continues to be used widely. Kyrgyzstan became part of the Russian Empire in the late 1800s. In 1924 it was incorporated into the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) as an autonomous region, and in 1936 its status was upgraded and it became one of the 15 constituent republics of the USSR, officially called the Kirghiz Soviet Socialist Republic (SSR). The republic was also commonly known as Kirgizia under Soviet rule, and Russians continue to call it that today. Kyrgyzstan became independent from the USSR in 1991. In 1993 the republic ratified its first post-Soviet constitution.




Geography of Kyrgyzstan:

Kyrgyzstan covers an area of 199,951 square kilometers in the eastern part of Central Asia. It borders on China to the east and south, Kazakhstan to the north, Tajikistan to the south and Uzbekistan to the west. More than 80% of Kyrgyzstan is mountainous, thus the country's nickname "the Switzerland of Central Asia." Its highest point is the Jengish Chokusu peak in the Tien Shan Mountains, at 7,439 meters (24,406 feet). The lowest point is Kara-Daryya, at 132 meters (433 feet). The largest river is the Kara Darya, which crosses into Uzbekistan. Kyrgyzstan also boasts one of the world's largest mountain lakes, Issyk-Kul. 


Kyrgyzstan is a multinational state. The population is about 5.5 million (2013). Etnic groups; Kyrgyz 72,2 %, Russian 6,9 %, Uzbek 14,3%, other 11.8%. Language: the official language is Kyrgyz, which belongs to the Turkic group of languages. Russian remains the language of international communications. Religion: Islam, 70%; Russian Orthodox, 20%; other 5%.

Capital City: Bishkek, (formerly Frunze)

Climate: varies regionally. The south-western Fergana Valley is subtropical and extremely hot in summer, with temperatures reaching40 °C (104 °F) The northern foothills are temperate and the Tian Shan varies from dry continental to polar climate, depending on elevation. In the coldest areas temperatures are sub-zero for around 40 days in winter, and even some desert areas experience constant snowfall in this period

Education: The school system in Kyrgyzstan includes primary (grades 1 to 4) and secondary (grades 5 to 11) divisions within one school. Children are usually accepted to primary schools at the age of 7. It is required that every child finishes 9 grades of school and receives a certificate of completion. Grades 10–11 are optional, but it is necessary to complete them to graduate and receive a state-accredited school diploma. To graduate, a student must complete the 11-year school course and pass 4 mandatory state exams in writing, maths, history and a foreign language. There are 77 public schools in Bishkek (capital) and more than 200 in the rest of the country. There are 55 higher educational institutions and universities in Kyrgyzstan, out of which 37 are state institutions.

Higher education system in Kyrgyzstan:

State symbols of Kyrgyzstan




The national flag of Kyrgyzstan: is a red cloth. The center posted a picture of sun-yellow. At Sun posted a symbolic image of Kyrgyz yurta. Adopted in 1992, the red flag symbolizes the valor and courage. The sun symbolizes peace and wealth, and the image yurta - a symbol of the country and the world.




Emblem of Kyrgyzstan: the coat of arms of Kyrgyzstan was adopted on 2 June, 1992, following the dissolution of the Soviet Union. The coat of arms has a circular form and mostly bears the color blue, as light blue is the Kyrgyz color of courage and generosity (as on the flag and coat of arms of Kazakhstan). To the left and right of the coat of arms, wheat and cotton are displayed. In the upper part, the name of the country appears in Kyrgyz "Кыргыз Республикасы" (Kyrgyz Respublikasy).

National currency: Som. Most major credit cards, like Visa and MasterCard are accepted in a large number of stores and hotels. Currency can be exchanged at banks, currency exchange booths, and hotels. ATM are widely available in major cities.

Time: + 6 GTM (Bishkek)

Electricity: 220 V International country code: + 996

General Facts

• Full name: Kyrgyz Republic

• Population: 5 551 900 (2012 est.)

• Area: 199,951 sq km

• Official language: Kyrgyz and Russian 

• Minorities: Russians, Uzbeks, Kazakhs, Tajiks, Dungans, Turks, Ukrainians, Jews, Kurds and others

• Natural Resources: abundant hydropower; significant deposits of gold and rare earth metals; locally exploitable coal, oil, and natural gas; other deposits of nepheline, mercury, bismuth, lead, and zinc.

• Highest Mountain Peak: Jengish Chokusu peak (7,439 meters (24,406 feet).

• Average Altitude Above Sea Level: 2 750 metres